In teaching week 5, you will discuss pluralism and the Treaty of Waitangi in your tutorials. Use this discussion, the notes in your ALVC book and the internet to respond to the following questions;
1. Define the term 'pluralism' using APA referencing.
1. Define the term 'pluralism' using APA referencing.
“a state of society in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups maintain an autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common civilization”
Pluralism (retrieved 24 August 2011). http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pluralism
“Inclusion of individuals of differing ethnicities, genders, ideologies, abilities, ages, religions, economic status and educational levels is valued. Pluralism honours differences within and between equitable groups while seeing their commonalities.”
Cultural Context: Pluralism in Art (retrieved 24 August 11). http://www.design.iastate.edu/NAB/about/thinkingskills/cultural_context/pluralism.html
2. How would you describe New Zealand's current dominant culture?
I think New Zealand’s current dominant culture is varied though mainly considered to be white European/Pakeha. There are many immigrants in New Zealand from other countries in Asia, Europe and Africa. The Maori Tangata Whenua culture is used for tourism purposes and in advertising and promoting New Zealand to other countries but this does not really reflect the culture of New Zaealand today.
3. Before 1840, what was New Zealand's dominant culture?
As we discussed in class, before 1840, Maoris were the dominant culture and people of New Zealand, with a population near 100,000 compared to the European settlers with around 200 people. Comparing this to today, the changes to the culture and way of life in New Zealand have been dramatic, greatly affected by the settlement of land and wars caused by new te4chnologies like the muskets that were introduced estimating to have killed 20000 Maoris due to the land disputes.
4. How does the Treaty of Waitangi relate to us all as artists and designers working in New Zealand?
It relates to us in what we call Kiwi or can associate with New Zealand and our works. We can relate to the treaty through the use of the New Zealand/Maori culture as a part of our reputation and creative process. The Maori culture is protected by the treaty yet it is used openly around the world without consideration from many. As designers and artists working in New Zealand we should be aware of what is right and wrong to use and produce in terms of abusing the Maori culture and traditions for the sake of art.
5. How can globalization be seen as having a negative effect on regional diversity in New Zealand in particular?
Globalisation according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary is defined as “the act or process of globalizing : the state of being globalized; especially : the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labour markets”.
For regional diversity within New Zealand globalisation can have a negative effect in limiting regional cultures and traditions and altering them permanently, resulting in the loss of diversity. Art and design within in New Zealand differs due to available materials and inspirations in different environments but with globalisation any material wanted can be found and inspiration from environments via travel can affect ideas and works. This results in a loss of diversity and works that are identifiable with a region or area.
6. Shane Cotton's paintings are said to examine the cultural landscape. Research Cotton's work 'Welcome'(2004) and 'Forked Tongue' (2011) to analyze what he is saying about colonialization and the Treaty of Waitangi.
'Welcome' (2004) Shane Cotton
'Forked Tongue'(2011) Shane Cotton
With his works, Shane Cottons weaves and obvious enquiry into the nature of entwined Maori and Pakeha cultures (Daly, 2010). He tries to combine Maori and Pakeha sources to form a hybrid poetic painting that shows the shared experience of the two cultures within New Zealand. He questions the notion of cultural identity and the space between Maori and Pakeha perspectives. His work “has addressed historical contact” and “transitional cultural episodes” where the Maori culture has been introduced to the new settling European migrants (“Flight Paths,” 2007). Through his art Cotton reflects the changing times in New Zealand cultural landscape showing the “shift in the hierarchy of image” (“Flight Paths,” 2007) that was brought about through the colonisation. “Cotton's imagery usually carries heavy cultural weight, collapsing a lot of history into an image - a severed head means a great deal for a maoru artist whose work negotiates with colonial art and museum practices" (Mathews, 2005).
7. Tony Albert's installation 'Sorry' (2008) reflects the effects of colonization on the aboriginal people of Australia. Research the work and comment on what Albert is communicating through his work, and what he is referring to. Describe the materials that Albert uses on this installation and say what he hopes his work can achieve. Define the term 'kitsch'.
Tony Albert’s installation ‘Sorry’ commemorates the apology on 13th February 2008 by the former Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd, to Indigenous Australians for the pain they have suffered as a result of ‘past mistreatment’ by the Government of Australia (“Sorry,” 2010). In this work Albert captures the emotion of the moment with a forest of faces from Australian history showing those who had stolen from them family, land and culture. the images that make up the word ‘sorry’ show aboriginals as the white society saw them; a part of the Australian outback and ‘landscape’ but they didn’t have to interact with. “Each represents a false identity, manufactured black faces made to fit white society” (“Tony Albert Sorry,” 2011). The installation is simply a word though, a symbolic gesture, this word taken on “face value until real change is observed” (“Sorry,” 2010). Through the work Albert wished to give imagery life, to empower the aboriginals and in a way reverse racism turn it in a positive light to remain hopeful and strong for change and a better future.
Kitsch is art (whether or not it is good art) that is deliberately designed to move us, by presenting a well-selected and perhaps much-edited version of some particularly and predictably moving aspect of our shared experience...."
Solomon, R. "On Kitsch and Sentimentality." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 49 (Winter 1991): 1-14. Retrieved from: http://csmt.uchicago.edu/glossary2004/kitsch.htm
8. Explain how the work of both artists relates to pluralism.
Both works relate to pluralism showing not just the dominant culture of their respective countries but the indigenous native peoples and some of their ways of life, traditions and culture. Both reflect on the past and history and how we can still see some of these elements in today’s society.
· Flight Paths. (July 14, 2007). The Listener, issue 3505. Retrieved from: http://www.listener.co.nz/culture/art/flight-paths/
· Mathews, P. (August 6, 2005). Cover Story. The Listener, issue 3404. Retrieved from: http://www.listener.co.nz/culture/cover-story-5/
· Daly, J. (20 July 2010). Shane Cotton paintings examine the cultural landscape.
· Sorry. (10th September 2010). http://21cblog.com/tony-albert-sorry-2008/,
· Tony Albert Sorry. Retrieved 25/8/11. Retrieved from: http://qag.qld.gov.au/collection/indigenous_australian_art/tony_albert,